In the course of your Spanish studies, you may have noticed certain patterns that make "predicting" words you may never have even heard before possible in many cases. The focus of today's lesson is one such group of words.
Due to their shared roots in the Latin language, many English words that end with the suffix -ation are cognates (words in different languages that share similar meanings, spellings, and pronunciations) along with their Spanish equivalents that end in a very similar suffix: -ación. Let's look at several, very common examples that you may have heard:
Justo el día de hoy le ha dado un mensaje a la nación
Just today he's given a message to the nation
Caption 23, Yabla en Lima El Centro - Part 2Play Caption
y tenía mucha imaginación.
and he had a lot of imagination.Play Caption
Ehm... ¿Tiene alguna recomendación como de pollo o de pescado?
Um... Do you have any recommendation, like, for chicken or fish?
Captions 32-33, Cata y Cleer En el restaurantePlay Caption
y, por suerte, casi siempre hay mucha participación.
and, luckily, there is almost always a lot of participation.
Caption 78, Viajando con Fermín Asociación ProDunas MarbellaPlay Caption
What can we notice about these words? First off, most of them share virtually identical spellings in English and Spanish but for the replacement of the English suffix -ation with the Spanish -ación. The only minor exception in these examples is the inclusion of a double consonant (m) in the English word "recommendation" that does not appear in la recomendación (this is due to an English spelling rule that we won't delve into in this lesson).
Another noteworthy feature of this class of -ation/-ación cognates (and, in fact, all words that end in -ación in Spanish) is that these nouns' gender in Spanish is feminine.
That said, what if we were at a party, and we wanted to talk about more complex concepts such as "industrialization," "globalization," or "commercialization," and we weren't familiar with the correct Spanish terms? We might try to substitute the Spanish suffix -ación for -ation, just to see what we came up with:
tenemos la... lógicamente, la industrialización,
we have the... logically, industrialization,Play Caption
Y no te quiero hablar de la globalización
And I don't want to talk about globalization
Caption 47, Yago 6 Mentiras - Part 6Play Caption
Es una ruta a nivel turístico bastante joven que está en pleno proceso de comercialización.
It's a rather young route at the touristic level that is in the middle of the process of commercialization.
Captions 30-31, Europa Abierta Taller de escenografía en OlivaresPlay Caption
It worked! You will note that, once again, the spellings and meanings of these terms in Spanish and English are virtually identical except for the slight difference in their suffixes and the addition of the double "m" in "commercialization," again due to English spelling norms. That said, we suggest applying this formula to English words ending in -ation to make an educated guess about their Spanish translations since chances are you'll be right!
Of course, as with all things in life, no formula is perfect, and there are always exceptions. Let's take a look at couple of them:
En los meses de verano, su población llega a multiplicarse por cuatro.
In the summer months, its population gets multiplied by four.
Caption 14, Fuengirola MercadoPlay Caption
Although our formula would take us to the not-quite-correct word populación, we'd venture to guess that a native Spanish speaker would understand perfectly well what you meant by "En los meses de verano, su populación [sic] llega a multiplicarse por cuatro" and just might gently edify you as to the correct term. Let's look at another example:
porque justo salir del aeropuerto ya te encuentras con la estación de autobús.
because just leaving from the airport you come across the bus station right away.
Caption 28, Blanca Cómo moverse en BarcelonaPlay Caption
In this case, the word estación is extremely similar to the English word "station" except for the suffix and the "e" at the beginning, which is due, this time, to a Spanish norm whereby almost all words with an "s" and a consonant at the beginning are preceded by an "e." And again, we're pretty sure that were you to inquire about the whereabouts of la stación de tren, someone would still direct you to the train station!
Although there are some words that end in -ation in English whose translations are even less similar than the aforementioned examples (e.g. translation/traducción, explanation/explicación, etc.), we still suggest that our formula is a great place to start because, even if you aren't perfectly correct in your attempt to morph an -ation word in English into an -ación word in Spanish, chances are you'll be understood and/or corrected, which is how we learn. And, in many, many cases, as we've shown you... you'll be correct!
That's all for today. Have you noticed any other patterns that have helped you to make educated guesses about words in Spanish? Let us know with your suggestions and comments.